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Go to:DISCUSSIONWhile it is clear that the popularity of cannabis is increasingly for the general public, there is a clear need to gain more scientific knowledge about the associated benefits and risks of cannabis for patients with medical conditions.

Undoubtedly, there are many unsubstantiated claims about the use of cannabis for treating several medical conditions. More specifically for anxiety, scientific evidence is also showing cannabis is expected to relieve tension and help young females relax7. Although the future highest rtp australian casino role that medical cannabis will play in healthcare is unknown, this case demonstrates how the patient was able to significantly benefit from the introduction of medical cannabis into her mental health intervention for the treatment of vertigo and a generalized anxiety disorder. In this case, the benefits for the 88-year-old patient using medical cannabis as a treatment in the both the short term and longer-term far outweighed the potential risks that may require consideration for children or adolescents8. This case demonstrates how the patient was able to use medical cannabis to reduce the debilitating symptoms associated with her vertigo to drastically improve her quality of life. A pattern seems evident for the patient where her symptoms for vertigo fluctuated according to whether or not she was able to access medical cannabis. This case also highlights the all australian casino no deposit bonus 2020 legislative conundrum for patients, physicians and government9. Despite her medical team supporting her continual use of medical cannabis, she was not able to receive a prescription. As a result, she accessed medical cannabis from an illegal and unregulated source. While the patient reported to trust this source and only use medical cannabis according to her daily protocol, there are potential safety risks associated with her self-medicating cannabis to combat her symptoms and not having accurate information about dosing, consistency and quality of the cannabis. Go to:CONCLUSIONThis case is a preliminary finding and reinforces the need for more rigorous testing on the application of medical cannabis to be used as a treatment for different medical conditions, including generalized anxiety disorder. The practice is extremely painful and has serious health consequences both at the time when the mutilation is carried out and in later life. The age at which girls undergo FGM varies enormously according to the community. The procedure may be carried out when the girl is newborn, during childhood or adolescence, just before marriage or during the first pregnancy. However, the majority of cases of FGM are thought to take place between the ages of five and eight. It modernised the offence of FGM and the offence of assisting a girl to carry out FGM on herself while also creating extra-territorial offences to deter people from taking girls abroad for mutilation. To date no-one has been convicted of FGM in England and Wales.

In July 2014, the UK Government and UNICEF hosted the first Girl Summit,2 aimed at mobilising domestic and international efforts to end FGM.

The Government made a number of commitments for new legislation to tackle FGM. Under the 2003 Act it is an offence for any person in England, Wales or Northern Ireland (regardless of their nationality or residence status) to perform FGM (section 1) or to assist a girl to carry out FGM on herself (section 2). It is also an offence to assist (from England, Wales or Northern Ireland) a non-UK national or resident to carry out FGM outside the UK on a UK national or permanent UK resident (section 3).

Section 4 extends sections 1 to 3 to extra-territorial acts so that it is also an offence for a UK national or permanent UK resident to: perform FGM abroad assist a girl to perform FGM on herself outside the UK and assist (from outside the UK) a non-UK national or resident to carry out FGM outside the UK on a UK no deposit bonus casino australia 2020 national or permanent UK resident. The intention was for the extra-territorial provisions to catch offences involving those with a substantial connection to the UK but not those who were here temporarily.

However, the Director of Public Prosecutions has highlighted a small number of cases where the CPS could not prosecute for FGM committed abroad because those involved were not, at the material time, permanent UK residents as defined by the 2003 Act. These changes will mean that the 2003 Act can capture offences of FGM committed abroad by or against those who are at the time are habitually resident in the UK irrespective of whether they are subject to immigration restrictions. It will be for the courts to determine on the facts of individual cases best microgaming casinos australia whether or not those involved are habitually resident in the UK and thus covered by the 2003 Act. Section 70(2) of the 2015 Act makes equivalent amendments to the Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation (Scotland) Act 2005. Reluctance to be identified as a victim of FGM is believed to be one of the reasons for the low incidence of reporting of this offence. It is anticipated that providing for the anonymity of victims of alleged offences of FGM will encourage more victims australian casino deposit bonus to come forward. Section 71 of the 2015 Act amends the 2003 Act to prohibit the publication of any information that would be likely to lead to the identification of a person against whom an FGM offence top new zealand casinos is alleged to have been committed.

This is similar, although not identical, to the anonymity given to alleged victims of sexual offences by the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 1992. There are two limited circumstances where the court may disapply the restrictions on publication. The first is where a person being tried for an FGM offence, could have their defence substantially prejudiced if the restriction to prevent identification of the person against whom the allegation of FGM was committed is not lifted. The second circumstances is where preventing identification of the person against whom the allegation of FGM was committed, could be seen as a substantial and unreasonable restriction on the reporting of the proceedings and it is considered in the public interest to remove the restriction.

Offence of failing to protect a girl from risk of FGM 16. Section 72 of the 2015 Act inserts new section 3A into the 2003 Act this creates a new offence of failing to protect a girl from FGM. This will mean that if an offence of FGM is committed against a girl under the age of 16, each person who is responsible for the girl at the time of FGM occurred will be liable under this new offence. It would be a defence for a defendant to show that at the relevant time, they did not think that there was a significant risk of FGM being committed, and could not reasonably have been expected to be aware that there was any such risk or they took such steps as he or she could reasonably have been expected to take to protect the girl from being the victim of FGM. The onus would then be on the prosecution to prove the contrary. At the Girl Summit on 22 July 2014 the Prime Minister launched a consultation on a proposal to introduce a specific civil law measure for the purpose of protecting potential or actual victims of FGM, closely modelled on the forced marriage protection orders in the Family Law Act 1996. Section 73 of the 2015 Act provides, therefore, for FGMPOs for the purposes of protecting a girl against the commission of a genital mutilation offence or protecting a girl against whom such an offence has been committed. The court may make a FGMPO on application by the girl who is to be protected or a third party. The court must consider all the circumstances including the need to secure the health, safety, and well-being of the girl. Under the new provisions an FGMPO might contain such prohibitions, restrictions or other requirements for the purposes of protecting a victim or potential victim of FGM.

Duty to notify police of female genital mutilation 24.

Section 74 inserts new section 5B into the 2003 Act which creates a new mandatory reporting duty requiring specified regulated professionals in England and Wales to make a report to the police.

The duty applies where, in the course of their professional duties, a professional discovers that FGM appears to have been carried out on a girl aged under 18 (at the time of the discovery).

The duty applies to professionals working within healthcare or social care, and teachers.

The duty does not apply where a professional has reason to believe that another individual working in the same profession has previously made a report to the police in connection with the same act of FGM. For these purposes, professionals regulated by a body which belongs to the Professional Standards Authority are considered as belonging to the same profession. Section 75 inserts new section 5C into the 2003 Act which confers on the Secretary of State a power to issue statutory guidance on FGM which relevant individuals are required to have regard to. Amending the law is not the only answer to securing additional prosecutions and convictions for FGM nor can it eradicate a practice that has been deeply ingrained in the culture of practising communities. The Government is committed to preventing and ending this form of violence against women and girls.


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The College of Policing will issue new guidance to raise awareness of FGM among officers. The Crown Prosecution Service is also working closely with the police to joe fortune casino australia identify girls and women at risk of, or who have been subjected to, FGM. The practice is extremely painful and has serious health consequences both at the time when the mutilation is carried out and in later life. The age at which girls undergo FGM varies enormously according to the community. The procedure may be carried out when the girl is newborn, during childhood or adolescence, just before marriage or during the first pregnancy. However, the majority of cases of FGM are thought to take place between the ages of five and eight. It modernised the offence of FGM and the offence of assisting a girl to carry out FGM on herself while also creating extra-territorial offences to deter people from taking girls abroad for mutilation. To date no-one has been convicted of FGM in England and Wales. In July 2014, the UK Government and UNICEF hosted the first Girl Summit,2 aimed at mobilising domestic and international efforts to end no deposit bonus casino australia 2020 FGM.

The Government made a number of commitments for new legislation to tackle FGM.

Under the 2003 Act it is an offence for any person in England, Wales or Northern Ireland (regardless of their nationality or residence status) to perform no deposit bonus casino australia 2020 FGM (section 1) or to assist a girl to carry out FGM on herself (section 2). It is also an offence to assist (from England, Wales or Northern Ireland) a non-UK national or resident to carry out FGM outside the UK on a UK national or permanent UK resident (section 3). Section 4 extends sections 1 to 3 to extra-territorial acts so that it is also an offence for a UK national or permanent UK resident to: perform FGM abroad assist a girl to perform FGM on herself outside the UK and assist (from outside the UK) a non-UK national or resident to carry out FGM outside the UK on a UK national or permanent UK resident. The intention was for the extra-territorial provisions to catch offences involving those with a substantial connection to the UK but not those who were here temporarily. However, the Director of Public Prosecutions has highlighted a small number of cases where the CPS could not prosecute for FGM committed abroad because those involved were not, at the material time, permanent UK residents as defined by the 2003 Act. These changes will mean that the 2003 Act can capture offences of FGM committed abroad by or against those who are at the time are habitually resident in the UK irrespective of whether they are subject to immigration restrictions.